ملتقى طلاب وطالبات جامعة الملك فيصل,جامعة الدمام
مركز تميم لخدمات التعليم عن بعد شحن الى جميع انحاء المملكة

العودة   ملتقى طلاب وطالبات جامعة الملك فيصل,جامعة الدمام > .: سـاحـة التعليم عن بعد (الانتساب):. > ملتقى طلاب التعليم عن بعد جامعة الملك فيصل > كلية الأداب > اللغة الأنجليزية > E6
التسجيل الكويزاتإضافة كويزمواعيد التسجيل     أعتبر مشاركات المنتدى مقروءة

E6 English Literature Students Level six Forum

مثل شجرة166اعجاب
إضافة رد
 
LinkBack أدوات الموضوع
  #1  
قديم 2015- 11- 17
أكـاديـمـي نــشـط
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: كلية الآداب
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: єиɢℓisн ℓiteяαtυяe
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
إحصائيات الموضوع:
المشاهدات: 6099
المشاركـات: 38
 
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 224810
تاريخ التسجيل: Sat Apr 2015
المشاركات: 128
الـجنــس : ذكــر
عدد الـنقـاط : 1714
مؤشر المستوى: 16
✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of✽ 3тнв has much to be proud of
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
✽ 3тнв غير متواجد حالياً
جميع واجبات +مناقشات +مجالس المذاكرة مستوى6

السلام عليكم ، طابت أوقاتكم جميعًا

- المواضيع المثبته فيها كل شي مهم عن المواد + الأسئلة ، بس - وجهة نظر - مجالس المذاكره فيها ملاحظات + نقاشات مهمه جدًا

1- النحو والصرف http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t703693.html
2- علم الدلالة والبراغماتيك http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t708706.html
3- اللغويات التطبيقية http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t704781.html
4- ترجمة الأنماط النصية http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t709954.html
5- الشعر الإنجليزي http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t704113.html
6- نظرية الترجمة - اللي سجلها الترم هذا مثلي - http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t708883.html
7- الرواية الحديثة - أنا خلصت منها الترم اللي فات - http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t707816.html


8- نظرية المعرفة http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t697902.html
9- تاريخ الخليج العربي الحديث http://www.ckfu.org/vb/t697669.html


* أي إضافه + تنبيه شاركونا فيها ... طبعًا مالي فضل في شي ! بس أحب أجمعها كذا في موضوع واحد أرجع له وقت الاختبارات دايم وكل المواضيع من جهودكم لا عدمناكم
توقيع » ✽ 3тнв
❃ سحانا وقار ، وعزّة نفوسنا فطره .

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة نونه الحلوة ; 2015- 11- 18 الساعة 12:09 PM
رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #2
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
رد: مجالس المذاكرة e6

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.

يسعد قلبك امس جلست ادور مجلس النحو بصفحتين .
توقيع » كارزما
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.

تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #3
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb مناقشات + واجبات النحو والصرف

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يا ليت ماعاد أحد يفتح مواضيع الواجبات والمناقشات
كلها بجمعها هنا
يا ليت جمان تغير عنوان الموضوع وتثبته

واجبات النحو والصرف الثلاثة :





الواجب الاول

النحو والصرف /

The description of how words, phrases and clauses are constructed and combined in a language is:
D. Syntax

2)The parts of words (i.e. stems, prefixes, and suffixes
D. Morphemes

3)The three major families of words are:
C. Lexical words, function words and inserts
















الواجب الثاني

4-النحو والصرف

1) They fill the position of a noun or a whole noun phrase.
a. Pronouns

2) ' be, have and do' are:
a. Primary auxiliary

3) ' The monkey saw a leopard' generates this rule:
a. S -----> NP V NP


الواجب الثالث



-النحو والصرف

1)The noun phrase in ' Tarzan saw a lion' generates this rule:
b. NP -----> Np

2) The verb phrase ' The monkey died' generates this rule:
a. VP -----> VI

3) The verb phrase in ' Tom was persistent' generates this rule:
b. VP -----> VL Adj

4) This rule ' S -----> NP VP ' VP= V NP PP generates this sentence:
b. Larry opened the oyster with a hammer.




مناقشات النحو والصرف :

حل مناقشات نحو وصرف Syntax & Morphology



1- The major families of words
Native speakers of English know thousands of words such as read, language, computer, on, whose meaning and form cannot be predicted. However, once they know the meaning of phish ( obtain sensitive information via email fraudulently ), they can recognize and construct words such as: phised, phiser,phising, and unphishable


2- The main classes of lexical words
lexical (or open)classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)


3- The function words
Function words are the words we use to make our sentences grammatically correct. Pronouns,
determiners, and prepositions, and auxiliary verbs


4- Describing a sentence
Comprehensive list of synonyms for describing words clauses andsentences, related words for describing words clauses and sentencesand other word


5- Nouns and verbs in the English language
Verbs have traditionally been defined as words that show action or state of being. Verbs can also sometimes be recognized by their position in a sentence


6- Adjectives and Linking verbs in the English language
An adjective is a word that describes, identifies, modifies, or quantifies something (a noun or a pronoun)
do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information



7-- Prepositions in the English language
preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence. Prepositions can be tricky for English learner


8- Personal pronouns in the English language
A person pronoun is a personal that is associated primaryily with a particular person, in the grammatical sense when discussing person. 3rd personal pronoun he, she, it. also we have the subject and object pronoun. Subject like we and object like us


9- Coordinate phrases in the English language
The grammar that we have developed so far consists of a LEXICON and a set of Phrase Structure Rules (PSRs) constrained by the X’-schema. The combined work of these two components generates simple structures, be they phrases or clauses of a varying degree of complexity. The central element in a phrase is the HEAD, an Xº, while all its dependents ( Complement, Modifier, or Specifier ) are XPs


10- Complement clauses in the English language
It is a.. nouns - pronouns - verbs - adjectives
adverbs - prepositions - conjunctions - interjections
End


11- Determiners in the English language
We use the general determiner any with a singular noun or an uncount noun when we are talking about all of those people or things:
It’l s very easy. Any child can do it. (= All children can do it)
With a full licence you are allowed to drive any car.
I like beef, lamb, pork - any meat.
We use the general determiner another to talk about an additional person or thing:
Would you like another glass of wine?
The plural form of another is other:
I spoke to John, Helen and a few other friends.
End


12- Adverbs in the English language
Ex. Manner Janet left quickly. Janet left early

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13- Modifiers in the English language
Modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that provide description in sentences. Modifiers allow writers to take the picture that they have in their heads and transfer it accurately to the heads of their readers


14- Particles in the English language
A particle is a minor function word that has comparatively little meaning and does not inflect, in particular
توقيع » كارزما
.
.

تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #4
أكـاديـمـي
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 233196
تاريخ التسجيل: Sun May 2015
المشاركات: 22
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 833
مؤشر المستوى: 0
memeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enoughmemeh3 will become famous soon enough
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: طالب جامعي
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: انجليزي
المستوى: المستوى السادس
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
memeh3 غير متواجد حالياً
رد: مجالس المذاكرة e6

الله يجزاكم خير
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #5
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb واجبات + مناقشات الشعر الرومانسي

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.


واجبات مادة الشعر الثلاثة




الواجب الاول

1- All Romantic literature is
a.subjective

2- The little Black Boy is a plea against ....
B.racial discrimination

3- The little Black Boy consists of ...
c.seven stanzas

الواجب الثاني

1- In the Tiger each stanza is ...... lines long
Four
2- The rhyme scheme of Daffodils is
c.aabcbc

3- In Daffodils Wordsworth emphasizes his identification
with
D.nature



الواجب الثالث



dark
Byron
Ignorant
Victorian



المناقشات


Discusions
1
She Walks in Beauty reveals different types of beauty. Which type is the most preferable to you?

The beauty of the soul., mind and manners.
This is perfection itself. Physical beauty is not everything
2
"The Little Black Boy" portrays remarkably the great influence of the mother on her child. Explain
She has a great way to teach her child what she wants him to learn
3

First impression can be misleading sometimes. Discuss referring to She Walks in Beauty.


  • the beauty is like the beauty of clear stalit night itis abeauty that combines the most attractive elements of darkness and brightness
    itis agntle soft beaty like the beaty of night which is more tender than that of the day

4
First impression can be misleading sometimes. Discuss referring to She Walks in Beauty.
He talks about women's exception beauty internal as well as external praises her physical beauty.
5
First impression can be misleading sometimes. Discuss referring to She Walks in Beauty.
The memory of the beautiful rainbow and its pleasant associations form the link between his childhood, adulthood and his old age: past, present and future. Wordsworth concludes the poem by expressing the desire that each day of his existence to be linked with the next by beautiful and simple natural sights like the rainbow
6
6- Explain why the poet is greatly attracted to the woman in She Walks in Beauty
internal as well as external
and the first stanza the praises her physical beauty
and the second and the third stanza praise both her physical and spiritual or intellectual beau
7
Why does Byron believe that his beloved is responsible for the parting.?
the poet holds his beloved is responsible for the parting because she has broken her vows
and she leaved him alone
8
The skylark's joy is a precious wish to the poet in" Ode To a Skylark". Comment
the experience of happiness is bound inextricably with the experience of sadness: dwelling upon memories and hopes for the future, mortal men “pine for what is not”; their laughter is “fraught” with “some pain”; their “sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought
Pain and languor, the speaker says, “never came near” the skylark: it loves, but has never known
“love’s sad satiety.” Of death, the skylark must know “things more true and deep” than
mortals could dream; otherwise, the speaker asks, “how could thy notes flow in such a crystal stream
9
Death is unavoidable and inescapable according to Larkin in
" Next Please". Discuss

The theme of this poem is the disillusionment that we experience as a result of the disappointment
of all our hopes and expectations. We keep hoping for something good to happen to us, but
our hope is dashed to the ground every time. Only one expectation is always fulfilled in human
life, and that is the expectation of death
10-Victirian poetry has many unique characteristics. Mention six.
1-It was an age of drastic changes in the British society as a result of industrialization and rich landowners were turning into businessmen.
2-It was an age of adventure, free enterprise and individual initiative. 3-It was age of imperialism. The reasons for imperialism were fundamentally economic:
A-Looking for cheep raw- materials.
B-Finding markets for manufactured goods.
4-Names of great imperialists and politicians appeared in the Victorian age: e.g. Disraeli and Gladstone.
5-It was an age of scientific progress in which great scientists and thinkers lived: e.g. Darwin, Huxley, Karl Marx
6-Faith in the reality of progress was the main characteristic of the early Victorian Age. Doubt, skepticism and questioning became the main characteristic of the later Victorian Age
11 -" My Last Duchess" embodies the story of a loving husband. Agree or disagree. Give reasons
I disagree because this poem is loosely based on historical events involving Alfonso, the Duke of Ferrara, who lived in the 16th century. The Duke is the speaker of the poem, and tells us he is entertaining an emissary who has come to negotiate the Duke’s marriage (he has recently been widowed) to the daughter of another powerful family. As he shows the visitor through his palace, he stops before a portrait of the late Duchess, apparently a young and lovely girl. The Duke begins reminiscing about the portrait sessions, then about the Duchess herself
12-" Break, Break, Break" reveals Tennyson's sadness and sufferings. Explain
This is a sad poem inspired by death of tennysons intimate friend aurther hallam
13- In modern poetry, man is represented as a lonely exile who is seeking his home. Comment
i think he is talking a bout the main characteristics of the modern poetry
because the man start to talk about his real feeling about the world and the loneliness he feel
14- Show Larkin's pessimistic view of life in " Next Please"
The theme of disillusionment and of the death , that experience as a result of disappointment of all of our hopes and expectations
توقيع » كارزما
.
.

تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #6
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
واجبات + مناقشات ترجمة الأنماط النصية

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.

الواجبات الثلاثة :




الواجب الاول


ترجمة الانماط النصية /

1. The person who renders the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text is the ……………………….
b) translator

2. According to James Dickins, a text is any given stretch of ………………………… assumed to make a coherent whole.
a) speech or writing

3. The text requiring translation is the ……
d) ST


الواجب الثاني



ترجمة الانماط النصية

1-A novel is an example of a --------text
-literary

2-Katharina Reiss views the --------as the level at which communication is achieved
and and at which equivalence must be sought
-text

3-Identifying the text type is:
- the first step of translation



الواجب الثالث

ترجمة الانماط النصية

1- Hatim and Mason classified text types according to their
a. rhetorical purposes

2- According to Newmark, the core of an informative text type is:
a. the topic

3- such as films and visual and spoken advertisements which supplement the other three functions with visual images, music, etc. As suggested by Reiss
b.Audiomedial texts

4-Argumentative, expositive and instruction-based text types are suggested by
d. Basil Hatim and Ian Mason






المناقشات :


1- In light of the urgent need of knowledge, discuss the importance of translation.
A certain language system has its own features and norms that people use to communicate with each other. What if two sides who are speakers of two different language needs to communicate with each other for a certain purpose? Here comes the importance of Translation.
2- It is obvious that not all texts are the same. They differ from each other. Discuss.
TEXT 1 is a religious text taken from the Holy Quran.
TEXT 2 is a bank leaflet
TEXT 3 is a technical text describing a certain disease.
TEXT 4 is a literary text taken from the novel “Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte
TEXT 5 is an official speech by The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
TEXT 6 is a poem by the famous English poet William Wordsworth.
TEXT 7 is an academic text - thesis abstract
TEXT 8 is a financial text taken from The Economist Newspaper - 1998
TEXT 9 is taken from a tourist brochure
3- Discuss the difference between text type classifications suggested by Hatim and Newmark.
Hatim classified text types according to their rhetorical purposes to : argumentative, expositive and instruction-based.
Newmark depends on Buhler's functions of language to deal with text types. According to Buhler, there are three language functions:expressive, informative and vocative.
4-What do hybrid text mean to you?
Sources of Hybrid Texts
Although Schäffner and Adpb were the first, according to Farahead (2004), to do a comprehensive study on hybrid texts with regard to translation studies, they were not by any means the first to do a study on such texts. This term has been in use since 1990s, “but in another context and with an essential shift in meaning” (Snell-Hornby, 1999: 108
5- What questions should you ask before beginning translating a certain text?
- What is the message content of this particular ST?
- What are its salient linguistic features?
- What are its principal effects?
- What genre does it belong to and what audience is it aimed at?
- What are the functions and intended audience of my translation?
These quesions are strategic question
6- Discuss the relation between text types and translation studies.
Translation is often regarded as a project for transferring meaning from one language to another .
"It is obvious that not all texts are the same type. We may distinguish between political texts, legal texts and medical texts; fairy tales, novels and short stories differ from newspaper reports, essays and scientific papers; food recipes, instructions booklets and advertisements may show similarities but they are not the same, expository texts differ from argumentative texts, etc. All these types of text differ in ways that are somewhat obvious, intuitively, but which nevertheless invite detailed analysis"
7
What is a metaphor? How to translate a metaphor?
arison, including as, such as and like. The word metaphor derives from the Greek word metaphor meta meaning ‘over’ and phora/pherein, which means ‘to carry’. Aristotle defined metaphor as “the application to one thing of the name of another thing”. Translation theory seems to be lacking a
8
8- What strategies do you follow to translate a financial text?
In light of the theoretical background outlined before, discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed translation of the following text then translate it into English. The translation will be presented to educated people
9
Discuss the freedom of the translator when translating a religious text and literary text.
Example: Translation religious text from the Holy Quran will be more difficult than translating a text from a language to another because some words will take more than 2 or even 4 meaning so all the text could be misunderstood but any text will be easy to translate even if it’s with different ways it will be fine but the religious text is not.
10
Talk about translating the advertisement.
the translation of advertisements has evolved during the last decade towards what is now called advertising localization it is not amere change of designation stemming from computer scince vocabulary but aradical change of perspective concerning the real nature and modes of linguistic and cultural transfer from one languge in to an another
11
What points should you concentrate on when translating poetry?
every language ha sits own poetry system and when we translate poetry we should know both ST and TT poetry system .
sourse text and target text
12
What issues do you take into consideration when you translate a literary text?
compound words are translated in to arabic as an adjectives and noun
the rules of combination and word order of the larger languages should be taken in to consideration
13
A bank leaflet is a text type that requires some certain way of translating. Discuss.
in order to make your online banking experience more secure we have improved the username and password rules
if you are facing difficulties logging into our internet and mobile
14
In light of the course contents, point out the major issues that have been explained during the lectures.
these texts purports to deal with the real worid as it is experienced by observable
they are more or less informative and it is understood to take an objective view
توقيع » كارزما
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تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #7
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb واجبات + مناقشات علم الدلالة والبرغماتيك

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الواجبات الثلاثة لعلم الدلالة والبرغماتيك :




الواجب الاول


- In 1894 in a paper entitled .....
a.meaning and its development

2- Which of the following statments is NOT correct when we ...
c.The referent of an expression is an abstraction in the mind of language users

3- In the collocation " blond hair " the type of ...
d. based on neither meaning nor range


الواجب الثاني



b.Each belongs to different styles
a.binary antonymy
b.bank(financial institution vs. the side of river




الواجب الثالث




1-I promise to stop doing that ' What is the type of the speech act ...
b. explicit performative

2- What is the speech act that is not always intented by the speaker .?
c. perlocutionary act

3- ' I swear to be there promptly ' what is the type of illocution in this ....
c. direct commissive illocution

4- if a speaker is NOT being ' truthful ' when engaged in ...
b.The Maxim of Quality




المناقشات


حل Semantics and Pragmatics

1
semantics is mainly concerned with a speaker’s competence to use the language system
pragmatics is a person’s ability to derive meaning from specific kinds of speech situations

2

Anaphora
We usually make a distinction between introducing new referents (a puppy) and referring back to them (the puppy, it).
We saw a funny YouTube video about a boy washing a puppy in a small bath.
The puppy started struggling and shaking and the boy got really wet.
When he let go, it jumped out of the bath and ran away.
In this type of referential relationship, the second referring expression is an example of anaphora (“referring back”).
The first mention is called the antecedent.
So, in our example, a boy, a puppy and a small bath are antecedents andThe puppy, the boy,

3

The term exponential analysis is a semantic approach which assumes that word meaning can be described in terms of distinct components, many of which are binary.
Components are qualities embedded in any word’s meaning, like the ones seen in dictionary definitions.
E.g., Dog refers to a mammal. Also, it refers to domesticated and carnivonat
that incompatibility of tear

4

Field theory as proposed by Trier is essentially concerned with paradigmatic relations. About the same time Porzig [1934] argued for the recognition of the importance of systematic relations, between e.g.bite and teeth, bark and dog, blond and hair. In a slightly different way Firth [1951]. Argued that,’’ you shall know a word by the company it keeps’’. His familiar example was that of as which occurred [in a now defunct variety of English]. In you silly-, Don’t be such an-, and with a limited set of adjectives such as silly, obstinate, stupid, awful and occasionally] egregious. For Firth this keeping company, which he called collocation, was part of the meaning of a word. As we have seen, meaning was also to be found in the context of situation and all the other levels of the as well

5
Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related meanings, which are often, but not always, interchangeable in sentences. E.g., broad/wide, almost/nearly, cab/taxi, youth/adolescent, purchase/buy

6

Date (a point in time) -Date (fleshy fruit)
So they are homonyms.
Date (on a letter)
Date (an appointment)
Date (a social meeting with someone)
So they are polysemy.
7

man = [+ male], [+ mature] or woman = [– male], [+ mature] or boy = [+ male], [– mature] or girl = [– male] [– mature] or child = [+/– male] [– mature]. In other words, the word girl can have three basic factors (orsemantic properties): human, young, and female. Another example, being edible is an important factor by which plants may be distinguished from one another (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 20). To summarize, one word can have basic underlying meanings that are well established depending on the cultural context. It is crucial to understand these underlying meanings in order to fully understand any language and culture.
8
Unitarian Universalism[2][3][4] is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".[5][6] Unitarian Universalists do not SHAREa creed but are unified by their SHARED search for spiritual growth. The roots of Unitarian Universalism (UU) are in liberal Christianity, specifically Unitarianism andUniversalism. Unitarian Universalists state that from these traditions comes a deep regard for intellectual freedom and inclusive love, so that congregations and members seek inspiration and derive insight from all major world religions.[7]
The theology of individual Unitarian Universalists ranges widely, including atheism,agnosticism, pantheism, deism, Judaism, Islam,[8] Christianity, neopaganism,Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and many more.[9]
The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was formed in 1961, a consolidation of the American Unitarian Association, established in 1825, and the Universalist Church of America,[10] established in 1866
It is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, and serves churches mostly in the United States. A group of thirty Philippine congregations is represented as a sole member within the UUA. The Canadian Unitarian Council(CUC) became an independent body in 2002.[11] The UUA and CUC are, in turn, two of the seventeen members of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists

9

Converse antonmy is a paired of words like: Buy-sell, Parent-child. This is a special type of antonmy in that the members of a pair do not contitute a positive negative opposition. they show the reversal of a relationship between two entities. Ali is Buying something from Sami means the same as Sami sells something to Ali. There are always two entities involved one presuposes the other. this is the major difference between this type and the previous two.

10

Constatives are words that describe a situation.
Performatives are words that incite action.
John promised to repay me tomorrow.” is an constative utterance because it describes a situation

11

the illocutionary act of an utterance:
'Knock the door!
the perlocutionary act of an utterance:
"By the way, I have a CD of Debussy; would you like to borrow it?"

12

direct and directive

13
Quantity maxim: Make your contribution as informative as is required, but not more, or less, than is required
The Quality maxim: Do not say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack
two of the maxims of grice

14
the son because he is lie

توقيع » كارزما
.
.

تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #8
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb واجبات + مناقشات اللغويات التطبيقية

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.

الواجبات الثلاثة للغويات التطبيقية :


الواجب الأول

http://www.ckfu.org/vb/attachment.ph...0&d=1444903269

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.


الواجب الثاني

http://www.ckfu.org/vb/attachment.ph...6&d=1445787085


الواجب الثالث




السؤال 1

  1. 1) ………………… depends on the people who mark the tests–the scorers.


    a- Validity


    b- Practicality


    c- Reliability


    d- Usefulness






السؤال 2

  1. 2) We can avoid subjectivity by……………………..


    a- training scorers


    b- screening


    c- testing


    d- aligning test scores







السؤال 3

  1. 3) If food item is described as either ‘90% fat-free’ or ‘10% fat’ this is an example related to…………………


    a- Semantics


    b- Pragmatics


    c- Critical Discourse Analysis


    d- Linguistics







السؤال 4

  1. 4) Saying ‘Genetic modification is a powerful technique’ rather than ‘Researchers who modify genes have a great deal of power’ is an example of ………………………….


    a- Standardization


    b- Passivization


    c- Organization


    d- Nominalization




المناقشات :






Disscusions
1- Applied linguistics and teaching approaches

A –i first language education, when a child studies their home language or languages
B – additional language education, often divided into second language education, when
someone studies their society’s majority or official language their
home language, and
foreign language education when someone studies the language of another country.
C – clinical linguistics Is the study and treatment of speech and communication
impairments , Whether hereditary, developmental, or acquired (through injury, stroke,
illness, or age)
D-language testing is the assessment and evaluation of language achievements and
proficiency, Both in first and additional languages, and for both General and specific
purposes

--------------------


2- Teaching approaches

the teaching of modern foreign
languages was influenced by the dead classical languages, Latin and ancient Greek.
Modern language learning, it was assumed, brought students into
contact with great
national civilizations and their literature's
---------------------



3- Error Analysis theory

Teachers and materials designers were urged to identify things learners need to do with the language (i.e. conduct a needs analysis)

and simulate these in the classroom

-----------


4- Interlanguage theory

learning would take place without explanation or grading , and without correction of errors,
but simply by exposure to meaningful input
it was believed that neither explicit instruction nor conscious learning had any effect
its
view os SLA was derived directly from mainstream linguistics research into
child first language
acquisition

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5- Acquisition and learning are used in producing language. Acquired competence (subconscious knowledge) allows the learner to produce utterances while learned language (conscious language) serves as a monitor. The monitor allows correction of the ianguage


-------------------------------------
6- Krashen's Monitor Model

This has come from theoretical linguistics in the work of Noam Chomsky . His idea is that the human capacity for language , as illustrated by a child's acquisition of the language around them, is not the product of general intelligence or learning ability , but an innate , genetically determined feature of the human species


----------------------------------------
7- Krashen's view of classroom language learning and teaching

the author illustrates how and under what conditions the immigrant women in her studyt created, responded to, and sometimes resisted opportunities to speak English. Drawing on her data analysis as well as her reading in social theory, the author argues that current conceptions of the individual in SLA theory need to be reconceptualized, and she draws on the poststructuralist conception of social identity as multiple, a site of struggle, and subject to change to explain the findings from her study. Further, she argues for a conception of investment rather than motivation to capture the complex relationship of language learners to the target language and their sometimes ambivalent desire to speak it. The notion of investment conceives of the language learner, not as a historical and unidimensional, but as having a complex social history and multiple desires. The article includes a discussion of the implications of the study for classroom teaching and current theories of communicative competence

-------------------------


8- Personality Factors

1- The affective domain

2- Self-esteem

3- Inhibition

4- Risk-taking

5- Anxiety

6- Empathy

7- Extroversion & introversion

8- Language aptitude

9- Motivation
– Age


--------------------------------
9- Teaching receptive skills

How we read and Listen

Reasons for Reading and Listening

1- Instrumental

2- Pleasurable

Top-down and Bottom-up

Different Skills

1- Identifying the topic

2- Predicting and guessing

3- Reading and listening for general understanding (SKIMMING) :

4- Reading and listening for specific information (SCANNING) :

5- Reading and listening for detailed information

6- Interpreting text

Problems and Solutions
1- Language
Solutions
a- One way of helping students is to pre-teach vocabulary that is in the reading or listening text.
b- Extensive reading and listening: This suggests reading and listening at length, often for pleasure and in a leisurely way. Extensive reading and listening take place when students are in their own.
c- Authenticity: Authentic material is language where no concessions are made to foreign speakers. It is normal, natural language used by native speakers of a language.
2- Topic and genre
3- Comprehension tasks
4- Negative expectation
---------------------

10

Teaching Productive Skills


Teaching Productive Skills

- In order for communication to be successful, we have to structure our discourse in such a way that it will be understood by our listeners or readers.

- Coherent writing makes sense because you can follow the sequence of ideas and points.

- When people with similar cultural and linguistic backgrounds get together, they speak to each other easily because they know the rules of conversation in their language and their shared culture.

- When they write to each other, they obey certain conventions.

- Such rules and conventions are not written down anywhere, nor are they easy to define. But at some cultural level, our schemata help us to communicate with each other successfully.

----------------------


11-Syllabuses

Writers and course designers have to take a number of issues into account when designing their materials. Once they have a clear idea of how their theories and beliefs about learning can be translated into appropriate activities, they will have to think about what topics to include.

- This will be based on perceptions of what students find engaging, what research shows in this area, and on the potential for interesting exploitation of the topics they might select.

- It will also be necessary to consider what kind of culture the material should reflect or encourage, and to ensure some kind of appropriate balance in terms of gender and the representation of different groups in society, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic.

- Writers and course designers also have to decide what language varieties they wish to focus on or have represented, and they need to adopt a position on how authentic the language should be, especially at beginner levels.
- Once these decisions have been taken, coursebooks writers and language program designers can then turn their attention to the central organizing strand of their materials, namely the syllabus.

--------------------------
12- Planning Lessons
- Lesson planning is the art of combining a number of different elements into a coherent whole so that a lesson has an identity which students can recognize, work within, and react to --- whatever metaphor teachers may use to visualize and create that identity.

- Plans, which help teachers identify aims and anticipate potential problems, are proposals for action rather than scripts to be followed slavishly, whether they are detailed documents or scribbled notes
-
13- Testing
Placement test
Diagnostic tests
Progress or achievement tests
Proficiency tests
-
14-Testing
1) Types of Test Items
Multiple-choice items
Short-answer Objective items
Communication items
2) General Testing Terminology
Test and Quiz
Objective and subjective test items
Speed and power tests
Formative and summative evaluation
Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests





توقيع » كارزما
.
.

تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #9
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
المشاركات: 6,004
الـجنــس : أنـثـى
عدد الـنقـاط : 406758
مؤشر المستوى: 489
كارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond reputeكارزما has a reputation beyond repute
بيانات الطالب:
الكلية: !!! U l00k lost follow Me
الدراسة: انتساب
التخصص: عنقليزي !♠
المستوى: المستوى الثامن
 الأوسمة و جوائز  بيانات الاتصال بالعضو  اخر مواضيع العضو
كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb واجبات + مناقشات الرواية الحديثة

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.


الواجبات الثلاثة للرواية الحديثة :





الواجبات

الواجب الاول

: Verisimilitude refers to:
1. The correspondence between the world presented in the novel and the real

2: Don Quixote is considered one of the first European novels. It waswritten by:
4. Miguel de Cervantes

: The epistolary novel is a novel in which thestory is told:
3. Through the letters of one of more of the characters


الواجب الثاني




Question 1: The novel of manner sis dominated by:
A. The manners, customs and conventions of a particular class

: Gothic novels are characterized by:
B. Magic, mystery and horror

: Walter Scott is considered the father of:
D. The historical novel

الواجب الثالث



1: Marlow's adventures in heart of Darkness take place in
D. The African Congo

2: The direct narrator in heart of Darkness is
A. Marlow

3: Who helped Marlow get hired at the Company?
B. Aunt

4: In Heart of Darkness, the Africans are constantlydescribed as
C. Animals



المناقشات :




1
Verisimilitude

Refers to the illusion that the novel is a representation of real life. Verisimilitude results from:
 a correspondence between the world presented in the novel and the real world of the reader
 Recognizable settings and characters in real time
what Hazlitt calls, “ the close imitation of men and manners… the very texture of society as it really exists.”
 The novel emerged when authors fused adventure and
romance with verisimilitude and heroes that were not supermen but ordinary people, often, insignificant nobodies

2

Realism

Middle class
Pragmatic
Mimetic art
Objective, but ethical
Sometimes comic or satiric
? How can the individual live within and influence society
Honore Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, George Eliot, William Dean Howells, Mark Twain, Leo Tolstoy, George Sand

Naturalism

Middle/Lower class
Scientific
Investigative art
Objective and amoral
Often pessimistic, sometimes comic
? How does society/the environment impact individuals
Emile Zola, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Thomas Hardy, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser

3

The development of the printing press: which enables mass production of reading material.

4
he was a journalist and a political pamphleteer, and his style was influenced by journalism.

5

Crusoe sets on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents, who want him to stay at home and pursue a career, possibly in law
After a tumultuous journey that sees his ship wrecked in a storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea again. This journey too ends in disaster
and Crusoe becomes the slave of a Moor(Muslims in Northwest Africa
After two years of slavery, he manages to escape and is rescued and befriended by the Captain of a Portuguese ship off the west coast of Africa. The ship is en route to Brazil. There, with the help of the captain, Crusoe becomes owner of a plantation
Years later, he joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa, but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island (which he calls the Island of Despair) on September 30, 1659
His companions all die, save himself, and three animals who survived the shipwreck, the captain's dog and two cats. Having overcome his despair, he fetches arms, tools and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He proceeds to build a fenced-in habitation near a cave which he excavates himself
He keeps a calendar by making marks in a wooden cross which he has built. He hunts, grows corn and rice, dries grapes to make raisins for the winter months, learns to make pottery and raises goats, all using tools created from stone and wood which he harvests on the island. He also adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society
Years later, he discovers native cannibals who occasionally visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. At first he plans to kill them but later realizes that he has no right to do so as the cannibals do not knowingly commit a crime. He dreams of obtaining one or two servants by freeing some prisoners; when a prisoner manages to escape, Crusoe helps him, naming his new companion “Friday” after the day of the week he appeared. Crusoe then teaches him English and converts him to Christianity
After another party of natives arrives to partake in a cannibal feast, Crusoe and Friday manage to kill most of the natives and save two of the prisoners. One is Friday's father and the other is a Spaniard, who informs Crusoe that there are other Spaniards shipwrecked on the mainland. A plan is devised wherein the Spaniard would return with Friday's father to the mainland and bring back the others, build a ship and sail to a Spanish port
Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears; mutineers have taken control of the ship and intend to maroon their former captain on the island. Crusoe and the ship's captain strike a deal in which he helps the captain and the loyal sailors retake the ship from the mutineers, whereupon they intend to leave the worst of the mutineers on the island. Before they leave for England, Crusoe shows the former mutineers how he lived on the island and states that there will be more men coming
Crusoe leaves the island December 19, 1686 and arrives in England on June 11, 1687. He learns that his family believed him dead and there was nothing in his father's will for him
Crusoe departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of his estate in Brazil, which has granted him a large amount of wealth. In conclusion, he takes his wealth overland to England to avoid traveling at sea. Friday comes with him and along the way they endure one last adventure together as they fight off hundreds of famished wolves while crossing the Pyrenees

6

Robinson Crusoe is the true symbol of the British conquest: The whole Anglo-Saxon spirit is in Crusoe
Crusoe attempts to replicate his own society on the island: application of European technology, agriculture, and even a rudimentary political hierarchy
The idealized master-servant relationship between Crusoe and Friday
Crusoe represents the “enlightened European.” Friday is the “savage” who can only be redeemed from his supposedly barbarous way of life through the assimilation into Crusoe's culture
Nevertheless, within the novel Defoe also takes the opportunity to criticize the historic Spanish conquest of South America

7

: Characteristics of the Realist Novel

The linear flow of narrative
The unity and coherence of plot and character and the cause and effect development
The moral and philosophical meaning of literary action
The advocacy of bourgeois rationality
Rational, public, objective discourse
The Realist novel of the nineteenth century was written in opposition to the Romance of medieval times
Representation of “real life” experiences and characters versus ideal love, ideal moral codes ideal characters (nobility), and fixed social values

8

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz),regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of theScramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

9

According to Conrad, it is based on real events and Conrad is "Marlow" in the novella
Conrad, author of Heart of Darkness, said that Heart of Darkness is a documentary--the things described in it really happened
Conrad actually did go to the Congo and was the captain of a steamboat on the Congo River. Heart of Darkness is a record of his experience
Marlow in the novella = Joseph Conrad
Kurtz in the novella = Leon Rom, head of the Force Publique

10

Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart illustrate the different ways of presenting Africa in literature. In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad shows Africa through the perspective of the colonizing Europeans, who tend to depict all the natives as savages. In response to Conrad's stereotypical depiction of Africans, Chinua Achebe wrote Things Fall Apart through the point of view of the natives to show Africans, not as primitives, but as members of a thriving society. Things Fall Apart follows Okonkwo's life as he strives for prestige in his community. When European missionaries come to Umuofia, Okonkwo's clan, Okonkwo tries to protect the culture that the missionaries would destroy in the name of "civilizing" the natives. However his rigid mentality and violent behavior has the opposite of its intended effect, perpetuating the stereotype of the wild African in the eyes of the European readers.
European prejudice against Africans is clearly present in Heart of Darkness. In traveling through Africa, the protagonist, Marlow, describes all the natives he encounters as savages, comparing them to animals or the wilderness of the jungle itself. In one instance, Marlow discovers a death pit literally an open grove where natives go to die. He describes the men there saying,
Black shapes crouched, lay, sat between the trees, leaning against the trunks, clinging to the earth in all attitudes of pain, abandonment, and despair they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation One of these creatures rose to his hands and knees and went off on all fours towards the river to drink. (Conrad 17545

11

Heart of Darkness portrays a European civilization that is hopelessly and blindly corrupt. The novella depicts European society as hollow at the core: Marlow describes the white men he meets in Africa, from the General Manager to Kurtz, as empty, and refers to the unnamed European city as the "sepulchral city" (a sepulcher is a hollow tomb). Throughout the novella, Marlow argues that what Europeans call "civilization" is superficial, a mask created by fear of the law and public shame that hides a dark heart, just as a beautiful white sepulcher hides the decaying dead inside

12

Heart of Darkness pays more attention to the damage that colonization does to the souls of white colonizers than it does to the physical death and devastation unleashed on the black natives. Though this focus on the white colonizers makes the novella somewhat unbalanced, it does allow Heart of Darkness to extend its criticism of colonialism all the way back to its corrupt source, the "civilization" of Europe.

13

Modernism began as a movement in that late 19th, early 20th centuries. Artists started to feel restricted by the styles and conventions of the Renaissance period. Thusly came the dawn of Modernism in many different forms, ranging from Impressionism to Cubism.

14

It is quite clear that the three novels Robinson Crusoe, Heart of Darkness and A Passage to India mainly deal with the issue of colonialism, imperialism and racialism. The three authors of these novel is to politically represent the images of “us” vs. “them” by creating a system of structure that shows that the human world is divided into two groups- “self” and “others” . The novel is an important genre to show how word can change the meanings and established a new interpretation through representation. In Orientalism Edward Said discusses this kind of textual representations of the Orient which is constructed, not natural. To him: In any instance of at least written language, there is no such thing as a delivered presence, but a re-presence, or a representation. The value, efficacy, strength, apparent veracity of a written statement about the Orient therefore relies very little, and cannot instrumentally depend, on the Orient as such. (21) Representation, especially of the colonized, is connected with politics. In the following three novels it is clearly revealed. Robinson Crusoe, Heart of Darkness and A passage to India deal with different aspects of representation of racialism, imperialism and colonialism. One of the best sealing fictions of the eighteen century is Robinson Crusoe. In this novel Defoe deals with colonialism by portraying a fictional picture of an adventurous man, who gradually becomes the master over an island and establishes his own colony. Behind the adventurous mind of Crusoe, Defoe shows his worldliness and monetary motive. It was the period when white men’s fantasy was to discover new lands so that they were regarded themselves as a master over an island and established their own colony. Certainly representation of colonialism, imperialism and capitalism lies at the heart of the novel Robinson Crusoe. Conrad’s Heart of Darkness was Saeed 63 published at the time when white men started to believe that it is their responsibility to civilize the savages. Through this novel Conrad represents Africa as a place which is inwardly impure, corrupted and symbol of evils. The sole purpose of the white men was to indulge in the exploitation of the backward, ignorant natives in Congo. Ivory dominates the thought of every white man in that time. In Heart of Darkness Conrad focuses on the issue of imperial attitude towards the Africans and how they tried to capture their culture where racial attitude also is an important aspect of imperialism. Twentieth century was an era of colonial activity for most of the Europeans when A Passage to India was published. India has changed a great deal since 1924 at the time the novel appeared. The Second World War brought the termination of the British Raj which is reflected in the novel A Passage to India. While the English people suffered from arrogance and racial superiority, the Indians suffered from contempt and nationalist sentiments. Forster technically represented the political relationship between the occidental and the oriental. In A Passage to India he clearly explored that it is not possible for an Englishman to make a real friendship with an Indians because one is “Self” and another is colonized “Other.” Forster deals with the relationship between two different cultures to explore British political control over India. In this novel all the Indians represented as perverted, clownish or queer characters. As a pure Christian Fielding represented as a moderate, civilized man who contends with friendliness. Like all British rulers Forster represented India as an exotic place, naturally beautiful and mysterious but culturally uncivilized. Forester’s A Passage to India is very much concerned about the representation of occident and orient as well as the author criticized native’s religious values to create binary constructions. Thus, these novels represent colonial identity, a sense of division, inequality and alienation. Textual representation is a process to produce calculative meanings and images of those who are marginalized. The colonial representation then involved Saeed 64 on the issue of power, subjugation, domination and control over colonized by the colonizers. Representation of a colonized as a peculiar figure or a group of radical otherness indicates the politics of empire. Therefore, representation means not only a conscious presentation but also an assumption about the marginalized groups, an imaginative or unreal colonial image that is known as “others.”
توقيع » كارزما
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تذكروا . . لآ تأتي آلأمنيآت إلـآ بـ : آلإستغفآر !
آستغفر الله الذي لآ إله إلآ هو آلحي آلقيوم و آتوب إليه ..
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2015- 11- 17   #10
مميزة مستوى 8 E
 
الصورة الرمزية كارزما
الملف الشخصي:
رقم العضوية : 136633
تاريخ التسجيل: Fri Feb 2013
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بيانات الطالب:
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كارزما غير متواجد حالياً
Lightbulb واجبات + مناقشات الخليج العربي

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الواجبات الثلاثة لمادة الخليج العربي :





الواجب الاول
س1: يتميز الساحل الشرقي للخليج العربي بـ :
طبيعته الجبلية


س2: ما هى أول دولة أوروبية استعمارية بسطت نفوذها فى الخليج العربى؟
البرتغال

س3: وقعت معركةديوالبحرية بين المماليك والبرتغاليين فى
عام 1509


الواجب الثاني

السؤال الاول : متى خرج أول أسطول هولندي إلى أسيا
في نهاية القرن السادس عشر

السؤال الثاني: انتهى دور شركة الهند الشرقية الهولندية في 1798م وحلت محلها
الحكومة الهولندية

السؤال الثالث: بدأ اهتمام الفرنسيين بالتجارة مع الشرق منذ
بداية القرن السادس عشر



الواجب الثالث


1- بدأ الانجليز بالمتاجرة مع الشرق عن طريق

روسيا وبحر قزوين



2- عند هجوم الفرس على القبائل العربية في البصرة استعانت هذه القبائل بـ...
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بالإمام احمد بن سعيد


3- تم الاعتماد على مهنة الطب أيضا واستخدامها كذريعة للتدخل في شؤون فارس و الخليج العربي من قبل ....

الروس




4- المقصود بمصطلح ( المعزب ) فى تجارة اللؤلؤ فى الخليج العربى هو .....

رئيس العمل وصاحبه



المناقشات :


1


أول من أطلق عليه الخليج العربي هو المؤرخ الروماني بلينيوس في القرن الأول الميلادي ، تلك الفترة التي كانت تلك المنطقة بالكامل بما فيها سواحل هذا الخليج الشرقية و الغربية ، عربية أو فارسية تحت سيطرة الإمبراطورية الرومانية.
ولا شك أن هذه التسمية التي أطلقها الرومان على الخليج في ذلك الوقت إنما ترجع إلى سيطرة العرب على المراكز التجارية والملاحية على امتداد هذا الممر المائي لفترات كبيرة في التاريخ في ذلك الوقت وما يؤكد ذلك السواحل الشرقية لهذا الخليج والتي تمتد لمسافة حوالي مأتى كيلو متر تشغل معظمها سلسلة من الجبال صعبة المنافذ إلى الداخل مما عزل سكان فارس والسلطة المركزية عن حياة البحر و ممارسة الأنشطة البحرية بشكل كبير ، إضافة إلى ما اشتهر به الفرس منذ أقدم العصور بخوفهم من البحر و قلة أنشطتهم فيه سواء المدنية أو العسكرية.
و بسبب عدم خبرة الفرس بالأنشطة البحرية التي كانت دائما نقطة ضعفهم هي الأسطول الأمر الذي بسببه تلقوا هزائم عديدة في ميدان المعارك البحرية على يد عناصر أو أمم أقل منهم بكثير في القوى ، مثلما حدث أمام بلاد اليونان في العصر الكلاسيكي أثناء ما يعرف بالحروب الميدية .
وقد دفع ذلك الكثير من المؤرخين حتى في الغرب إلى القول بأن الخليج ليس فيه شيء فارسي سوا أسمه فقط و أن اسم الخليج العربي يمثل حقيقة جغرافية ثابتة.

2

كانت البرتغال أول الدول الاستعمارية الغازية للمنطقة العربية بصفة عامة و منطقة الخليج بصفة خاصة ، و بسبب احتلال البرتغاليين منطقة الخليج العربي انهار النشاط البحري لعرب الخليج وهو مصدر رزقهم الوحيد أثناء تلك الفترة
و كانت القوى الإسلامية إبان تلك الفترة تتمثل في المماليك الذين حاولوا التصدي للخطر البرتغالي لكنهم انهزموا في معركة ديو البحرية عام 1509 م و كانت قواهم قد ضعفت و انهارت أمام الدولة الفتية وهي الدولة العثمانية التي كانت مشغولة في صراعها مع الدولة الصفوية من جهة ومع دولة المماليك من جهة أخرى لذلك كانت السيادة العثمانية على منطقة الخليج العربي سيادة اسمية

3

عقد كبار التجار الهولنديين بأمستردام في سنة 1952م اجتماعا قرروا فيه إنشاء شركة للتجارة مع الهند
قامت على دمج عدة شركات تجارية هولندية ، كانت قد وصلت من قبل إلى الشرق ونجحت في إقامة علاقات طيبة مع بعض الحكام في أرخبيل الملايو و أسس أغلبها مقرات تجارية و قلاع في ترنيت و بانتام و جزر باندا و رثتها الشركة في هذه المناطق ، بمجرد إتمام عملية الدمج لكل هذا قررت الشركة الهولندية الاتجاه إلى أرخبيل الملايو ، حيث يمكنها من القيام بعمليات واسعة لتجارة التوابل و حيث الظروف المتوفرة للسيطرة على هذه المناطق و التي ستساعدها على احتكار تجارتها.
و حتى تنفرد الشركة بتجارة منطقة أرخبيل الملايو , عملت على مناهضة الوجود البرتغالي و كذلك الإنجليزي و لذلك أصدرت أوامرها إلى موظفيها في الشرق بضرب المعاقل البرتغالية أينما وجدت و بناء القلاع أينما اقتضت الضرورة ذلك والتخلص من منافسة شركة الهند الشرقية الإنجليزية بكل الوسائل . وقد تحققت كثير من أهداف الشركة الهولندية في خلال فتره لم تتجاوز الخمس عشرة سنة ، حيث دمروا البرتغاليين و طردوهم من جزر كثيرة ، كذلك أبعدوا الإنجليز عن المنطقة بالكامل بعد أن عجزت شركة الهند الشرقية الإنجليزية عن منافسة الشركة الهولندية

4

كانت الثورة الصناعية التي اجتاحت أوروبا المحرك الأساسي لتصارع الدول و ظهور سياسة الاستعمار التي كانت تسمى
بالاستعمار الاقتصادي و التجاري إلى جانب ضعف الدولة العثمانية الذي أتاح المجال لتكالب دول الاستعمار الأوروبي على
المنطقة , مما ترتب عليه تغير سياسة بعض الدول تجاه الدولة العثمانية و أكبر هذه الدول هي بريطانيا التي غيرت سياستها
من المحافظة على وحدة الدولة العثمانية إلى التسابق لاقتسامها و تفتيت أراضيها , ومن ثم بدأ الصراع الدولي للسيطرة على
المنطقة.
و كان هذا الصراع صراعا سياسيا و اقتصاديا و دينيا من أجل امتلاك أكبر جزء من ممتلكات الدولة العثمانية و خاصة
الخليج العربي ليصبح بذلك منطقة إستراتيجية مهمة للإنجليز حيث يقع في الطريق إلى الهند .
وقد بدأت محاولات الانجليز للوصول إلى الشرق في النصف الثاني من القرن السادس عشر لرغبتهم الشديدة للمشاركة في
التجارة الشرقية , ولكن تخوفهم من القوة البرتغالية في البحار الشرقية في ذلك الوقت دفعهم إلى البحث عن طرق أخرى لا
يسلكها البرتغاليون , فبدئوا بالمتاجرة مع الشرق عن طريق روسيا وبحر قزوين ثم أرسلوا عدة حملات تجارية ولكنها لم
تحقق نجاحا ملحوظا.
و بدأ الانجليز في إنشاء مراكز تجارية لهم وسط معارضة شديدة من البرتغاليين مستغلين رغبة السكان المحليين في
التخلص من الحكم البرتغالي بلاضافة إلى عداء الفرس و الهنود و العرب للبرتغاليين , و تمكنوا من إلحاق الهزيمة بهم في
منطقة الخليج العربي.
و أصبح المجال ممهدا لانجلترا التى أسست شركة الهند الشرقية على غرار الشركة البرتغالية لتسير على نفس الخط
الاستعماري من خلال السيطرة على التجارة.
وهكذا بدأ التغلل البريطاني في الخليج


5

بدأ اهتمام الفرنسيين بالتجارة مع الشرق منذ بداية القرن السادس عشر شأنها شأن القوى الأوروبية الكبرى في ذلك الوقت بعد
حركة الكشوف الجغرافية. ولم يكن الوجود الفرنسي في بحار الشرق عامة و الخليج العربي بصفة خاصة ملحوظا إذا ما
قورن بالدول الأوروبية المنافسة الأخرى مثل البرتغال و هولندا و انجلترا. وقد وصلت أول رحلة تجارية فرنسية إلى الهند
في مطلع القرن السادس عشر ولكنها بالطبع واجهت بمعارضة قوية من البرتغاليين أصحاب الزعامة في المنطقة في ذلك
الوقت.
وقام الملك الفرنسي هنري الرابع في 1601م ( بعد عام من تأسيس الشركة الانجليزية ) بمحاولة لتأسيس شركة فرنسية
للتجارة مع الهند على غرار شركتي الهند الشرقية البرتغالية و الاسبانية ولكنه فشل.
و استمرت المحاولات الفرنسية في هذا المجال حتى نجحت في عام 1604م ( بعد حوالي أكثر من نصف قرن ) في تأسيس
شركة الهند الشرقية الفرنسية وذلك بمبادرة شخصية من وزير المالية الفرنسي كولبير بهدف تطوير مجالات التجارة الفرنسية
مع بلاد الشرق
خلال القرن القرن السابع عشر لم تتح للشركة الفرنسية الفرصة الكاملة للمشاركة بشكل كبير في تجارة فارس و الخليج
العربي بسبب المنافسة و المعارضة الشديدة من القوى الأوروبية الأخرى.
و انتهت المنافسة الفرنسية الهولندية في المنطقة لصالح الهولنديين , الذين سبقوهم إلى المنطقة ولذا فلم يفسحوا لهم المجال و
رغم وجود وكالة فرنسية في بندر عباس إلا أن نشاط الشركة الفرنسية في الميناء كان يغلب عليه الركود.

6

كان لبريطانيا أثر كبير فلقد انفردت بريطانيا في الميدان بدون منازع فكانت تسعى لتقرب العماني مع انجلترا من أجل حاجة البوسعيد الى قوة كبيرة مساندة في مشاكله الداخلية وتحقيق طموحاته في السيطرة على الخليج العربي والبحرين
7

قام البوسعيد بمقاومة كلاً من ايران وبريطانيا
حيث كانت ايران تحاول التدخل في شؤونهم والسيطره على بعض مدنهم حتى إطروا الى عقد الصلح مع الفرس مقابل خروجهم من مسقط لكن لم يجدي وقاموا بمحاصرة مسقط وطردهم نهائياً منها
أما على الصعيد البريطاني , فعندما نزلت حملة نابليون بونابرت على مصر و كانت تستهدف الإنجليز في الهند , استغلت
بريطانيا مشاعر المسلمين ضد الحملة الفرنسية على مصر لمنع فرنسا من التغلغل في عمان و الخليج و بالفعل تمكن
الانجليز من توقيع معاهدة بين سلطان بن احمد حاكم مسقط و بين شركة الهند الشرقية الانجليزية في 1798م. وقد تضمنت
هذه المعاهدة نصوص من شأنها تقوية العلاقات بين عمان و بريطانيا للقضاء على النفوذ الفرنسي و الهولندي. و أهمية هذه
المعاهدة أنها أول معاهدة تعقدها انجلترا مع حكام عرب الخليج و تتسم بالطابع السياسي .
و تحت حجة منع تجارة الرقيق أبرمت بريطانيا مع البوسعيد معاهدة أخرى في 1802م تعهد فيها بإيقاف تجارة الرقيق , ثم
معاهدة تجارية في عام 1839م.
وفيما يبدو أن الأوضاع الداخلية كانت وراء قبول العمانيين للموافقة على هذه المعاهدات رغبة في العون البريطاني المدعم
لفريق على حساب الأخر أثناء الصراع الداخلي العماني

8
وبسبب الهجوم المكثف على معظم المراكز والموانئ التابعة للقواسم والتي تمت في وقت واحد اضطر القائد العربي (الملا حسين) إلى الاستسلام وترك جزيرة قشم إلى احد شيوخ بني معين وهو حليف لحاكم مسقط فأصبحت من ممتلكاته. وأكملت الحملة بمعاونة القوة البحرية العمانية مهاجمة باقي مراكز القواسم. ورغم تدمير الكثير من دفاعات القواسم وشدة القصف من الجانب الانجليزي لقلاع ومراكز القواسم إلا أن مقاومتهم كانت قوية بشكل ملفت للنظر ولم يستطع الانجليز, رغم تفوقهم العسكري, تحقيق أهدافهم بشكل كامل. وبسبب استمرار تلك المقاومة الباسلة كان عقد معاهدة معهم من قبل الانجليز أمر غير وارد. وبذلك فشلت الحملة البريطانية في تحقيق أهدافها, وكل ما حققته هو إيقاع الدمار ببعض الموانئ القاسمية وحرق بعض السفن. أعتقد البريطانيون أن الضربة القاسية التي تعرض لها القواسم على أيدي الحملة السابقة جعلتهم غير قادرين على مواصلة نشاطهم البحري ومهاجمة السفن البريطانية مرة أخرى. ولكن ما حدث هو العكس فأقتصر انجاز هذه الحملة على مجرد إعاقة نشاط القواسم مدة قصيرة فحسب. وما لبث أن استعادوا نشاطهم مرة أخرى بل وبشكل كبير واستطاع القواسم تعويض خسائرهم في السفن التي فقدوها على أيدي الانجليز ومنذ عام 1820م ازدادت قوتهم حتى أصبحوا من جديد أقوى قوة بحرية على طول خط الملاحة في الخليج العربي ومنذ عام 1819-1820م بدأت المرحلة الحاسمة في الصراع بين القواسم وبين البريطانيين ورغم الاستبسال من القواسم إلا أن التفوق هذه المرة كان واضحا وحاسما من قبل الانجليز, وبعد خمسة أيام من القتال دخلت القوات البريطانية رأس الخيمة ثم توالت المراكز القاسمية الأخرى السقوط أمام القوات البريطانية وتم أسر القائد القاسمى حسين بن على. أجبر القواسم على قبول المعاهدة التي عرفت بالمعاهدة العامة في يناير 1820م وبهذه المعاهدة, وما أعقبها من معاهدات أخرى عقدتها بريطانيا مع الأطراف الأخرى, انهار النشاط البحري للقواسم وغيرهم من قبائل ساحل عمان. وبذلك استطاعت بريطانيا أن ترسخ هيمنتها على المنطقة

9

كان لي ال سعود 3 محاولات لبناء دولتهم لكن كانت تواجه من رفض ومحاوله لإسقاطها من دول الإستعمار والفرس والعثمانين خوفاً منها كونها دوله فتيه وقويه فخافوا على مصالحهم
فقامت الدوله السوعيه الأولى وسقطت بعد صراع مع العثمانين

قامت الدوله السعوديه الثانيه وسقطت بعد تدخل بريطانيا أيضا لتشعل من الخلاف الداخلي بين الأمير عبدا لله بن فيصل و أخيه سعود بن فيصل حتى انقسمت نجد
إلى قسمين مما أدى إلى تدخل القوى الاستعمارية وهى بريطانيا و الدولة العثمانية

قامت الدوله السعوديه الثاثه فقد بذل الملك عبدالعزيز ال سعود جهودا كبيرة في توحيد الجزيرة العربية و نقل مجتمعاتها البدوية و القبلية إلى نظام يتسم
بالاستقرار و القوة تحت راية مركزية وطنية قوية على أجزاء الجزيرة و سواحل الخليج العربي . وكما ذكرنا من قبل فان
بريطانيا لم تكن راضية عن نشوء الدولة السعودية التي نافستها في الخليج و بسطت سيطرتها عليه خلال المرحلة الأولى و
الثانية.
وقد حاولت بريطانيا والعثمانيين اسقاطها لكن الملك عبد العزيز استطاع توحيد البلاد والصمود أمام هذي التدخلات وبذلك قامت دوله اسلاميه عربيه قويه

10

بعد سقوط الدولة السعودية الأولى استطاع بنو خالد استعادة الإحساء وبسطوا نفوذهم عليها حتى اشتعلت الاشتباكات مرة أخرى بينهم وبين السعوديين حتى جاء الإمام تركي بن عبد الله الذي استطاع الانتصار على بني خالد وضم الإحساء مرة أخرى إلى الدولة السعودية الثانية , ثم بايعه أهل القطيف مجددين ولائهم له ثم وفد إليه زعماء القبائل في رأس الخيمة , وبدأت الدولة السعودية الثانية بمد نفوذها مرة أخرى على عمان والعديد من مناطق الخليج. وقد بذل الإمام فيصل بن تركي جهودا كبيرة للاتفاق مع العديد من حكام إمارات الخليج متخذا سياسة الحلول السلمية تارة والعسكرية تارة أخرى. ولم تترك بريطانيا الدولة السعودية الثانية تزداد قوة ونفوذ في المنطقة فأخذت تعمل على التدخل في علاقة السعوديين بالحكام العرب في الخليج , فكانت تستغل الخلافات بين السعوديين وبعض القبائل لتدعم هذا الخلاف مثلما حدث مع حاكم البحرين بوقوفها إلى جانبه وتدعيمه ضد الدولة السعودية. أما بالنسبة للدولة العثمانية فتشير بعض المصادر إلى أن الإمام فيصل بن تركي وافق على تبعيته للدولة العثمانية بشكل اسمي فقط. وبريطانيا كانت سياستها تجاه الإمام فيصل تسير وفق مصالحها في الخليج العربي. فقد كانت سياسة بريطانيا تعارض بشدة

11

عرفت تجارة اللؤلؤ منذ القدم في الخليج العربي , و كانت من أول النشاطات الاقتصادية التي كانت مبنية أثناء الثورة التجارية
الأولى على أسس شبه رأسمالية . ولكن الانحسار الاقتصادي المتمثل في انهيار تجارة المضاربة التقليدية و ازدياد الطلب
العالمي على اللؤلؤ و خاصة في أوربا أديا معا إلى بروز القيمة العالية لهذه السلعة.
و تؤكد المصادر التاريخية و الجغرافية التي اهتمت بأمور الملاحة في الخليج بما أن حوض الخليج العربي يعتبر أنسب بيئة
لتكون و نمو أصداف اللؤلؤ عن بقية البحار و الخلجان في الجزء المائي من الكرة الأرضية .

12

تطور في العصور المتقدمه و زاد من تجارة الخليج وارتفاع مستوى المالي فالدول من ناحية التصدير والإيراد للدول المحتاجة للبترول

13

يتحل الامن مكانه رئيسيه في التفكير الاستراتيجي الاستغلال الامثل للقوه وعناصرها ضد الارهاب وساهمت العلاقات الاقتصاديه لدول مجلس التعاون في تدعيم مفهوم الامن الاستراتيدجي والسياسي والاقتصادي

14

الارتباط الوثيق بين الاوضاع الامنيه والاقتصاديه في الخليج والاستقرار السياسي الاقتصادي والامني في المنطقه واهميه انشاء مجلس التعاون الخليحي والدور المحوري الذي قام به على الصعيد الاقتصادي والامني
توقيع » كارزما
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المواضيع المتشابهه للموضوع: جميع واجبات +مناقشات +مجالس المذاكرة مستوى6
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[ مذاكرة جماعية ] : ‹(`· مجالس المذاكرة 1437 ·`)› {تهاويل} E5 0 2015- 10- 29 08:41 AM
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